Department of Meat and Fish Processing and Refrigeration
Preparation of masters in the following areas (since 2011):
Preparation of masters in master's programs (since 2011):
Department of meat and fish products and canning by cold was created simultaneously with the formation of the institute in 1931. The Department releases engineers in "Refrigerated food technology" regularly since the inception.
The Department occupies a leading position in the Russian Federation and the commonwealth countries within the area of this specialty. It also occupied a leading position in the Soviet Union. This specialty has become a specialization in "Technology and canned food concentrates" since the middle of 80s.
Associate Professor and then Professor Mikhail Tuhshnayd was the first head. Professor L.Horowitz -Vlasova, M. Ilyin, P. Bekensky; associate professor F. Turandina and process engineers of first releases N. Golovkin, G. Chizhov, V. Gudkov, E. Shkol'nikova, and K. Markov worked at the Department. The Department has been headed by Professor N. Golovkin from 1946 to 1979. He was awarded the honorary title "Honored scientist of the RSFSR" in 1968. N. Golovkin was also awarded the state prize of the USSR in 1972. From 1979 to 1984, the Department was headed by Professor I. Alyamovsky. Professor V. Kutsakova was the head since 1984, and Professor A. Ishevsky superintended the Department since 2001.
Professor G.Chizhov worked at the Department until 1979. He was one of the leading scientists and educators in the area of refrigeration technology of food products. Graduates of the institute, known specialists on general and refrigeration technology, docents V. Gudkov, F. Babin, N. Behr, A. Piskarev , E. Shkol'nikova; assistant M. Aref'eva, head of the laboratory of K. Markova and others worked as teachers at various times at the Department. Professor B. Kolodyaznaya, V. Filippov; docents D. Kuprin, N. Uvarov are working more than 35 years at the Department. Heads of laboratories O. Zaprometova, E. Kolomicheva, M. Kremenevskaya are working more than 30 years. Professor S. Murashov, docents Y. Bazarnova, T. Burov are working more than 20 years.
The american institute of food technologist noted 10 the most significant innovations in the area of conservation for the previous 100 years in 1994.
A method of processing foods by high temperatures for a reduced period of time known as aseptic processing and packaging;
Optimization of mode of sterilization of canned products which ensures their safety;
A method of processing foods in the field of high and ultrahigh frequencies which is designed based on the design of microwave ovens;
Technology of cryo concentration citrus juice;
The method of storage of fruits and vegetables in condition of controlled gas environment (theoretical foundations of this method of storage were laid by Russian scientists F. Tserevetinovym, J. Nikitin and V. Zagoryansky. Results were reported at the international congress of refrigeration in 1914 in Tiflis);
The technology of freeze-drying food , the author of which is a Russian engineer in oil drilling Lappa - Starzhenitsky discovered well-preserved berries which accidentally hit the hood of the vacuum pump in 1925;
Technology of fast food freezing;
The concept of water activity in order to assess the degree of exposure of dried products with intermediate microbiological moisture and other deterioration;
Use of food additives to increase the duration of storage of food;
Development of technology of processing of milk by ultra-high temperature in a short period of time (over 1300C for 1 ... 3 seconds).
The Department works in these areas of research and builds profile of special subjects and disciplines of specialization. Profile disciplines in the Department are: " Refrigerated food technology ", " General technology of branch ", "Theoretical foundations of conservation" , "Technology of conservation" , "Technology of meat and meat products ", " Drying technology ", " Designing of enterprises with using authorized system of designing " . Elective courses taking into account regional and occupational specific: "Technology of fish and fish products ", "Technology of canning of plant products” were introduced for a variety of disciplines. Elective courses are focused on obtaining by students specific knowledge in the area of their future professional activity. The Department conducts training sessions in other Departments of the institute such as Departments of refrigeration, technique of food production, economics and management in the disciplines "Technology of food production» and " The technology of branch."
The Department has new educational laboratories on refrigeration technology, general technology, canning technology, technology of meat in accordance with courses. Educational laboratories are equipped with modern equipment, instruments and systems. It allows students to study comprehensively and thoroughly the laws effects of low and high temperatures on food products with a refrigerant and high-temperature canning, to simulate processes of canning industries.
Sausage matter penetrated in the Russian from Western Europe through Poland, Lithuania and Galicia at the end of XVII century. German butchers were about 20 by Peter I in 1789-1790 in Russia. Famous sausage invented by “Petersburg pupil of a German butcher" Rusinov in Uglich went on sale thanks to the development of Russian mode of production at the beginning of the XIX century. It was not only extremely tasty, but could be stored 2 years without spoiling. 50 sausage shops employees of which were highly qualified Russian wizard were in 1858-1859 in Uglich. 50 from 74 sausage institutions in St. Petersburg belonged to Uglich masters in 1886. First export of Russian sausages abroad started from St. Petersburg sausage shop of Bychkova. It is curious; the first technological instruction on making Russian, Little Russian, Polish and Lithuanian sausages and smoked meats was compiled and published by masters in 1858. Russian master pushed especially German butchers in Moscow.
The first period of development of the meat industry in the USSR was characterized by socialization, rehabilitation and partial refurbishment of old enterprises and slaughterhouses. New intestinal factories, bacon factories, albumin plants and meat processing plants were built at the same time. However, this construction has neither satisfy the increasing demands of the economy nor the pace of development, nor the technical level.
All-Union Scientific Research Institute of the meat industry was founded in 1931. Moscow Institute of meat and dairy as well as Departments and departments of meat technology in institutes and universities across the country were opened.
There was a sharp decline in the production of meat and meat products in 1995. Reducing the volume of production of meat and meat products was due to the reduction of the weight of livestock and poultry to be processed, the unresolved issues payments and mutual debts between enterprises and suppliers.
The Department began to educate technologists in "Technology of meat and meat products" for the ensuring of the North- West of Russia by specialists since 1997. More than 200 engineers to work in meat processing plants of the country have trained for 10 years. The Department is among the best in the training of technologists. Agreements were concluded with the leading meat processing companies in the industry of the North- West region of the Russian Federation. The Department works with more than 10 meat processing plants of Northwest region : Krondshtadsky m / c, Parnas-M , PC "Peterburzhenka " ,"Sagittarius" , "Novgorod meat yard " Starorussky m /c, JSC " Meatland ", LLC " Roshinsky delicacies " as well as Tosnensky feed mill and other on the basis of economic agreements and treaties on creative cooperation. One of the main areas in condition of the shortage of raw materials is the introduction of resource-saving technologies which allows implementing deeper processing of raw materials, reducing production costs and increasing its competitiveness. These lines are a priority in the research activities of the Department «Technology of meat and meat products."
Grounds of Department increased by 300 square meters at the expense of spaces owned previously by the library in 1987-1988. The spaces have been converted into educational laboratories: the floors were reinforced, water and power electricity were summed. Old laboratory spaces have been modernized, equipment have been purchased, mostly imported as finished laboratories. Two new laboratories were established at the Department with help of enterprise-partners in 2002-2004: laboratory of meat processing and laboratory of methods of analysis of raw materials and products of animal and vegetable origin which are among the best in the country. Joint seminars with center for continuing professional education of institute of refrigeration and biotechnology of ITMO, laboratory and research works are carried out for technologists of meat processing enterprises on the base of these laboratories.
Fishing in Russia was produced mainly in the Caspian, Azov, and Aral seas and lakes and rivers waters before the revolution. The total catch of fish was only ten millions of kilograms. Currently, about 115.9 millions of tons of fish and other sea products are produced in the world annually according to food and agricultural organization. Russian fishing industry produces a wide range of fish products, canned and preserved and salted, smoked and dried products.
Training of specialists began within the specialty "Technology of fish and fish products" in specialization "Technology salted, smoked, dried and dried aquatic organism” at the Department since 2006. Leading experts from "Giprorybflot ", " Federal State Budgetary Institution " and " National center for the quality of fish products” were invited to give lectures on special subjects. The Department cooperates actively with leading universities in the Russian Federation cities of Murmansk, Kaliningrad, Vladivostok, Khabarovsk on educational and scientific areas of the specialty. Currently, active work on creation of a specialized laboratory "Technology for processing aquatic organisms» which will bring the university to the leading positions in the Russian Federation in this specialty is carried out.